By Thos. C. Miller

THE LEGAL argument of the maintennance of a system of schools at public expense is that through a wider dissemination of knowledge, an increase of learning among men, the State may be betterable to perpetuate itself. On no other ground than that of public necessity and the promotion of the general welfare can the expenditure of such vast sums of money for schools be defended. The State is built up and maintained by and through the intelligence of its citizens, therefore we aim to educate the youth of the land not only mentally, but morally, socially and physically, that they may be the better fitted for the duties of citizensip. With this end in view the teach is expected to implant in the mind and heart of the pupils a love for the institutions of our republic, to teach obedience to and respect for rightful authority, and to inculcate all those principles of justice, truth and honesty that will enlarge and beautify the individual character and make for the common welfare, -- the good of the state.
      "Patriotism," says Dr. T. J. Morgan, "is the source of public good, and hence should be the prim object of public school training; the American public shool should be the nursery of American patriotism." It is therefore not only the duty of the instructors of our youth to teach patriotism, true love of country, respect for authority and obedience to law, but such instruction becomes a very pleasing and helpful exerise in the school room. Much history can be thaught in this manner. With "Paul Revere's Ride" you can give younger students a better idea of the conflict at Lexington and Concord than by reading pages of the usual text. Then look at the material of this kind ready at hand: "The Landing of the Pilgrims." Independence Bell," "Old Ironsides," "Union and Liberty," "The American Flag," "Lowells Commemoration Ode," "The Color Bearer," "The Grand Refiew," and may other ballads and lyrics that might be given.
      There is no better way of teaching love of country and our free institutions than by singing patiotic songs in the school. "America," The Star-Spangled Banner," "The Red, White and Blue," and "The West Virginia Hills," are familiar to all, let them not only be sung, but memorized and studied. Know somewhat of the author of the piece and the circumstances under which it was written. Our pupils should be familiar with the life and character of S. F. Smith, Francis Scott Key, Oliver Wendell Holmes, and the writers of our songs of patriotism. Who of the seventy-five thousand that stood on Boston Common theat memorable July day in 1895, and sang our National Hymn, with its author in the midst, will ever forget the inspiration of the occasion? Only a few weeks later he passed to his reward, but the name of Samuel Francis Smith will live in the hearts of the American people as long as the nation endures.
      The history of the stars and strips should be familiar to every boy and girl in America. Study Drake's "American Flag" and learn the origin and growth of our National emblem, from the first suggestions of Betsy Ross to the Committee of the Continental Congrass in 1777, to the addition of the forty-fifth star, When Utal became a State.
      Let our youth learn to love and revere the symbol of our freedom by saluting the flag when it is raised on the school grounds. Some time ago the following was suggesthed by the Youths' Companion, and it will be found a very pretty and appropriate salute when properly rendered:
      "We pledge allegiance to our flag and to the Republic for which it stands--one Nation, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all."
      n New Yorkk city, and in other parts of the country where there is a large foreign pupulation represented in the school, the salute given below is used:
      "I give my head and heart to my country--one country, one language, one flag."
      Another good way to teach patriotism in our schools is by celebrating the birthdays of our leading Americans. Many excellent exercises are now issued in pamphlet form, and teachers will find no difficulty in finding abundant material for Washington's Birthday, Lincoln Day, or the birthday of many other prominent statesmen, historians and poets.
      Indirectly connected with this subject is the observance in our schools of Arbor Day and Bird Day, features of instruction made quite prominent in may places. Trees and birds are a part of our national domain, so to speak, and we appreciate hill and dale all the more because of the happy associations with these objects of nature.Thus by study the lives and characters of noble men and women, by reading and reciting patricotic uterances, by singing our national songs and getting in love with the beauties of nature about us, we shall be able to arouse admiration and enthusiasm for our country and its great intitutions.

      The following from Hezekiah Butterworth is peculiarly appropriate here:

The blue arch above us is Liberty's dome
      The green fields beneath us. Equality's home;
But the school-room to-day is Humanity's friend--
      Let the people the flag and the school-house defend;
"Tis the School house that stands by the flag,
      Let the nation stand by the school;
"Tis the school-bell that rings for our Liberty old,
      "Tis the school-boy whose ballot shall rule.

West Virginia University, May 15, 1897

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